A vast majority of wildlife products used in traditional medicines is usually taken directly from the wild [13]. The present study was designed primarily to compare the trend of utilisation for this species between different locations and amongst different peoples in the country. It was observed that many animal species have been over-exploited as sources of medicines for the folk medicine trade [12]. This might have stemmed from their attempt to safeguard the secrets of the healing art which is the only source of livelihood for virtually all of them and protect their heritage of several generations. An average of 1.6 pangolins were utilised per tymp per month. A whole animal is required in the preparation of fortune rousers, immune boosters and rituals performed during the foundation laying stage of new buildings. Animals have been used as medicinal resources throughout human history. The practitioners were often reluctant to disclose the full complement of ingredients required for some preparations. Fifty-eight percent of the animals documented by [10] were mammals while among the more than five taxa recorded in [19], mammals represented the second largest utilised group. Use of scales to treat wounds, stomach ulcer and venereal diseases is premised on anti-microbial potencies of preparations from the scale. Ten percent of respondents procured the animals by chance/on encounter, above 47% engaged in prepayment for pangolins; while about 43% claimed they contracted hunters or poachers for deliberate searches for the animals as shown in table 5. Having recorded the highest fidelity level in previous studies as well this survey, there is need to subject scales as well as other parts of the various species of this animal to laboratory studies to determine the bioactive ingredients in them that makes pangolin so important medicinally all over the world. september 19, 2019. A preliminary survey was conducted in December 2006 to standardise the questionnaire, determine the time required to completely administer one questionnaire and, establish contacts with the tymps association. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Gorilla is actually listed on schedules I and 1 of CITES and Nigerian Decree No 11 respectively. It is situated between Latitude 6.2°N and 7.8°N and Longitude 3.0°E and 5.0°E. The bone (from any part of the body), vertebral bones, eye, limbs and complete female reproductive organ were each used to treat a condition - rheumatism, stroke, kleptomania, fortune rouser and ejection of placenta respectively. Part of A few pieces of pangolin carcass were used in divination and charms for good luck, protection and safety. About 43% of respondents contracted hunters for deliberate searches for the animals. This indiscriminate use of wild animals, especially endangered species in all forms of traditional medicine is a cause of growing concern [11, 12]. The study investigated the specific parts of pangolins employed to treat various conditions; complimentary ingredients required; method of preparation cum administration; need for accompanying incantations; and substitute wildlife species (and their parts) that could replace pangolin parts without necessitating a change in other ingredients. Ogun State is entirely in the tropics. 2007. Majority of wildlife used in traditional medicines is taken from the wild; hence demand by traditional medicine is a cause of over-exploitation of wild animals. Baba,mo ro wipe ogun isoye yi eni Ewe Akoko 16 la ma ko si.... Ogun Ajinde Ara (Alare ta toju ti arare koya toko tiko dide lori are egbiyanju ogun yi kia ni yio dide), ATUDE ASINA APA EGUN PA ASASI ATI OWU ALANTAKUN, Ogun fun Oniwa npale ati omuti ati iwakiwa ti afe kiwan fi iwa na sile, e ka le sir.ejowo,no send text msg si yin.e ko reply!Lori egbon mi ti ko le ba iyawo e se, Alafia Logun Oro Itoju Topeye Ogun Ibile Todaju, Civil Servant Killed By Thunder In Oro, Kwara (Photos), The Bad Shape Of Oro General Hospital, Kwara State (Exclusive Photos), Re: Alafia Logun Oro Itoju Topeye Ogun Ibile Todaju, Doctor in the House: Free Medical Advice Available, Causes Of Seeing Menstrual Period Twice A Month. In the present study, the scale was used for ejection of placenta in women after delivery but [3] reported that a whole female pangolin was required for the extrusion of placenta after parturition in women. Whole animal, flesh (in parts) and the complete thorax of pangolin were each employed in the treatment of 4 different conditions. EGBOGI JEDIJEDI (ogun jedijedi) egbo idi egbo ayin kafura pelebe. Other areas of similarities in uses between the Ijebus and the Aworis include the use of eyes to treat kleptomania, use of bones to treat rheumatism and stroke and, the utilisation of pangolin head for good luck charms. EGBOGI JEDIJEDI (OGUN JEDIJEDI) egbo idi egbo ayin kafura pelebe.Ao re sinu omiAo maa mu. Article  While the Ijebus used pangolin scale to prepare antidotes for sexual and food poisons, the Aworis in this study utilised whole internal organs of pangolins for such preparations. ogun: man steals month-old baby from sleeping mother october 8, 2019; ekiti: 59-year-old man caught on top of nine-year-old girl defiling her october 8, 2019 ... overdose of edible camphor “kafura pelebe’ is poisonous – research. Taxonomy, description, distribution and habitat, behavior, diet and reproduction for this animal is as presented in [7]. Olakunle Oluomo has described a former Majority Leader, who represented Sagamu I State Constituency in. Traditional-medical knowledge and perception of pangolins (Manis sps) among the Awori people, Southwestern Nigeria. It also identified possible wild animal substitutes with their parts that could be used successfully in place of pangolin. statement and We also thank Opeyemi Bakare and Jayeola Soewu for their contributions towards the preparation of this manuscript. Endangered Species Research. Springer Nature. This practice of treating human diseases by use of therapeutics obtained or ultimately derived from animals is called Zootherapy [9]. Posts Tagged: Ogun. In Africa, reliance on wildlife-based medicine stems partly on the one hand from the high cost of conventional medicine and the inaccessibility of modern health care facilities. Costa-Neto EM: Animal-based medicines: biological prospection and the sustainable use of zootherapeutic resources. A study in some markets in Isreal recorded 20 animal species which products were sold as traditional remedies [10]. Ao re sinu omi Ao maa mu. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Journal of Ethnobiol and Ethnomedicine. Twenty-four animal species used in 35 different medicinal purposes were documented in an ethnozoological study in Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary in India [10]. Mean age for respondents was 58.5 years (x = 58.5, n = 40). This agrees with the findings of Marshall (1998) [13] which reported that all plants and animals traded for traditional medicinal practices in South-Africa came from the wild. from curiosity sickness in the blood. The Ijebus required the head to treat convulsions, but the Aworis would utilise the thorax for same purpose. Alves RRN, Santana GG: Use and commercialization of Podocnemis expansa (Schweiger 1812) (Testudines: Podocnemididae) for medicinal purposes in two communities in North of Brazil. Obviously, continued depletion of medicinal wildlife resources not only embodies a challenge for conservation, but more importantly represents a serious threat to the health status of human population [4, 13]. Employment of female reproductive organs in preparations for safe delivery and ejection of placenta during childbirth arose from reasons that are apparently psychological or mystical. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine 7, 25 (2011). Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. In addition to depleting the population of the animal, this practice may inadvertently promote destruction of the habitat during desperate searches, thereby exposing individuals remaining in the population to further risks [7]. A TRAFFIC East Asia Report. PLEASE DON’T!!! The map of Nigeria and Ogun State showing study site. Findings during this study show that it is either the respondents have a total lack of awareness of the existence and implications of Decree No 11, or they know that the law is not enforced. High incentives often attached to contract hunting encourage poachers to push deeper into the natural habitat for this animal. 2000, [http://www.wpro.who.int/health_topics/traditional_medicine], Marshall NT: Searching for a Cure: Conservation of Medicinal Wildlife Resources in East and Southern Africa. 1992, 19 (2): 125-134. The resultant over-hunting has exposed several species, most especially the mammals to increased the risk. However, some of the animals identified as possible substitutes for pangolin are worse off regarding their conservation status as indicated in the various listings. This may reduce the pressure on pangolin populations in the wild. Other substitute animals are not yet listed. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-7-25, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-7-25. 1998. It is worthy to emphasise here that the scales cannot by any means be extracted without killing the animal. Can I give edible camphor(omi kafura pelebe) to my one year old boy due to the sweet things like sweet , biscuits, youhgort e.t. Eku Asin gbigbe 1,Iseta Ewe Taba tutu, Kataba gbigbe, Taba juku, Ewe Taba Oyinbo, Alubosa elewe, Ao gun po, ao da sinu oti oyinbo ao ma mu. Ogun State is entirely in the tropics. Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, P.M.B 1023, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria, Department of Plant Science and Applied Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago- Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria, You can also search for this author in Google Scholar, Lev E: Traditional Healing with Animal (Zootherapy); Medieval to Present-Day Levantine Practice. 10.1017/S0376892900030605. c he consumes everyday? While advocating that the medicinal use of animals be considered together with other anthropogenic pressures, [14] observed that rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence of the expanded urbanisation, global warming and reduced natural habitat poses a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Soewu, D.A., Adekanola, T.A. This agreed with [3] which stated that the head of white-bellied pangolin, Manis tricuspis, same species encountered in this study with the eyes intact was used in curing/treating kleptomania. 11 (1985): Control of International Trade in Endangered Wild Fauna and Flora[4, 7]. Adeola MO: Importance of wild animals and their parts in the culture, religious festivals, and traditional medicine, of Nigeria. Demographic data were also collected on the practitioners. According to Alves et al (2011) [14], the use of animals for medicinal purposes is part of a body of traditional knowledge which is increasingly becoming more relevant to discussions on conservation biology, public health policies, sustainable management of natural resources, biological prospection and patents. Contract hunting is employed whenever there is an urgent need for the animal, whole or parts, but which is not readily available in nearby markets. 2007, [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2603/is_0007/ai_2603000708], Ntiamoa-Baidu Y: West African Wildlife; a resource in jeopardy. Alves RRN, Barbosa JAA, Santos SLDX, Souto WMS, Barboza RRD: Animal-based Remedies as Complementary Medicines in the Semi-arid Region of Northeastern Brazil. Ogun awon baba wa Ogun eyonu awon agba Ogun asiribibo Ogun awure owo nla Osole Owo ifa,ogun Ogun Omo yahoo ogun atude. It is very important for conservation groups to create adequate awareness as regards the implications of depletion of natural resources (flora and fauna) having known medicinal values. The survey was carried out in all the four local government areas simultaneously. Terms and Conditions, Ao re sinu omi Ao maa mu. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. ogun iferan ti obinrin fimada loju okunrin ati okunrin fimada loju obinrin ... ewe awerepepe ,ori ,epo obo ,omundun ewuro ojo ti aba felo ni ao jasugar oniyo ,kafura pelebe ao gun epo obo yi ao da kafura si ao da awerepepe si lehin na ori lehin na sugar ao wa gun papo mo ose dudu ao ma fi we lo si ibi ise odaju edanwo ki efun ile labo. agba eyonu epo obo kafura pelebe ori ao popo mumu ati fifi para nb:omo to ngbonan tabi nsunkun ti ako man nkan to nse lelo ao fi pa lara ao si fun die mu asi lelo filo si odo enian pataki odaju Imi ojo, ewe lapalapa funfun, ewe ewuro, Kafura pelebe, epo obo, ose funfun toba wuwa, omi agbon # SISE_RE aogun awon nka won yi papo ti yio kunna daada aowa po mo ose funfun any type you buy nio, aowa fi omi agbon ye po papo, aoko sinu ike funfun, aoma fi we laro laro, aoma fi … Also the environment may be in danger due to destruction of natural habitats and resources, and the resultant imbalance in the ecosystem. It has an estimated population of 3,486,683 people for the year 2005 [7]. An Acad Bras Ciênc. In addition to documenting pangolin scales as having the highest fidelity level, [25] also reported that South Korea imported a total of 29, 621 kg of pangolin scales valued at USD 471,000 from China, Vietnam, Indonesia and Singapore between 1993 and 1994 for use in the Traditional Korean medicine (TKM). Egbo Ayin, Egbo idi, Egbo ipeta, Epo Okuku, Epo Ira, Epo orira, Egbo Lawale, Akogun, Epo igi Banni, Sasagbaku, Alubosa Ayu, Alubosa funfun, Atawere Adayeba, kanhun bilala, Abere, Kananfuru, Kafura Pelebe ao ge gbogbore die die sinu roba ragolis nila ao bu omisi ao fisile bi wakati mefa ao ma mu die die ekan lojumo tabi aro ati ale Cite this article. Ogun afato ao Wa egbo ogbolo tutu ati kafura pelebe ao fi oti ki ao MA yomu laro laro moki eyin baba mi moki eyin egbon MI awumi tie ba lefunmi ni iyonda kin matesiwaju Lori Ogun Fifi sile Ogun osole todaju Traditional medical practices dwells a lot on on-the-job experience. Open-ended questionnaire was used to encourage maximum discussion and optimum extraction of information. Danwo ajebida ni fun gbogbo arun. Located in the Southwest zone of Nigeria with a total land area of 16,409.26 square kilometres, it is bounded on the West by the Benin Republic, on the South by Lagos State and the Atlantic Ocean, on the East by … Questionnaires were administered on the tymps by direct interview method. 2011, 1-15. The use of this animal in traditional medicine is intensive and has no consideration for either the present conservation status of this species or the sustainability of such utilisation for the animal. Located in the Southwest zone of Nigeria with a total land area of 16,409.26 square kilometres, it is bounded on the West by the Benin Republic, on the South by Lagos State and the Atlantic Ocean, on the East by Ondo State, and on the North by Oyo and Osun States. This agrees with some of the findings in Soewu (2008) [15]. The authors would like to thank all the Yorubic traditional medical practitioners interviewed especially Awise Hakeem Osijinrin, Chief S. Ishola Soewu and Late Apena Segun Ogunlana for their co-operation. An average of 1.6 pangolins utilised per tymp in a month is beyond the sustainable level for this species which requires at least two years attaining sexual maturity, gestation period of 150 days and has a litter size of just one. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. In a study on animal based remedies in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, Alves et al (2011) [14] reported 51 medicinal animals distributed among 42 zoological families used to cure about 68 ailments. 2005, World Health Organisation (WHO): Traditional Medicine. Soewu DA: Wild Animals in ethnozoological practices among the Yorubas of southwestern Nigeria and the implications for biodiversity conservation. During the main survey which spanned January-March 2007, questionnaires were administered on a total of 40 traditional Yorubic-medical practitioners (tymps) i.e 10 tymps in each Local Government Area. Preparations of medicines used as fortune rousers and to boost farm productivity were also found to dwell more on perceived mystical properties of this species. This means a steady demand for a natural resource whose population size in the wild has not been established to be either adequate to cope with present demand or expanding appropriately to cope with likely increased demand in future. Background Kafura pelebe (camphor) {C10H16O} is a chemical substance used mostly amongst the Yoruba ethnic group in Western Nigeria to treat infantile colic during early childhood. A field study to assess the population dynamics of this animal in the wild is urgently required. 10.1186/1472-6882-9-1. Some animals have also been used for religious and cultural purposes such as sacrifices for appeasing and invoking spirits and gods while some others have played important roles in magic rituals and mysticism [2–4]. 2006, [http://www.awf.org/content/wildlife/detail/pangolin]. There is no indication that the level of utilisation of medicinal wildlife resources for traditional medicine would diminish [13]. April 17, 2017 In Awo Falokun, Community, Ogun, Orisa By Awo Falokun. Ao ma fi para. 7-2, Jaroli DP, Mahawar MM, Vyas N: An ethnozoological study in the adjoining areas of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, India. 1987, 27-25. Google Scholar, Kang S, Phipps M: A Question of Attitude: South Korea's Traditional Medicine Practitioners and Wildlife Conservation. Ogun Speaker, Olakunle Oluomo has hailed the late ex-Majority Leader, who represented Sagamu I State Constituency in the 7th and 8th Legislature, Hon Yinka Mafe. This utilisation of animals in zootherapeutic practices has little or no consideration for the conservation status of the faunistic resources as protected animals are also used indiscriminately [15, 20]. Traditional Yorubic-medical practitioners should be enlightened on the status of animals used in their trado-medical preparations. Unasylva. The demand created by traditional medicine has however been identified as one of the causes of the overexploitation of the wild population of numerous animal species. 1994, 15 (1): 15-22. Throughout human history, and in practically every human culture which presents a structured medical system, animals have been used as medicinal resources for the treatment and relieve of a wide variety of human health challenges [1]. Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Health / Alafia Logun Oro Itoju Topeye Ogun Ibile Todaju (480034 Views), Civil Servant Killed By Thunder In Oro, Kwara (Photos) / Ogun Ibile To Daju / The Bad Shape Of Oro General Hospital, Kwara State (Exclusive Photos) (2) (3) (4), (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) ... (27) (Reply) (Go Down), (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) ... (27) (Reply). With no record of successful captive breeding or domestication yet, especially in this part of the world, the only source of this animal is from populations in the wild that are already fast declining due to over-exploitation for medicinal uses [7]. Although majority of its uses attributed to its scales and carcass, pangolins are also used in food as a supplementary protein source and as adornments [4, 7, 23]. Odumosu, M. Agbara Nbe Ninu Ewe Ati Egbo. All four African species are listed in Class B of the 1986 African Convention on Nature and Natural Resources while the three western African species of pangolins are protected in Nigeria under Schedule 1 of Decree No. Awan ogun lorisirisi fun itoju ara onbo lona laipe, Ogun eniti owu Alantakun Makoloju ni gbogbo igba, Ogun omo to nsunkun ti ko nidikan pato to nfi sunkun, Aboruboye,Ejowo kini oruko miran ti anpe Asunwon oyinbo Isese agbewa o, this is a great thread that people will later turn to....u are doing a great work sir...pls sir....kin ni Ogun to odagu fun DIABETIES/ ITO SUGER , STROKE ati EJE RURU/HYPERTENSION. Article  This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. agba eyonu epo obo kafura pelebe ori ao popo mumu ati fifi para nb:omo to ngbonan tabi nsunkun ti ako man nkan to nse lelo ao fi pa lara ao si fun die mu asi lelo filo si odo enian pataki odaju Some points of divergence in utilisation pattern between Ijebus and Aworis were recorded as there were some similar situations that required different parts of the animal. Soewu and Adekanola Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2011, 7:25. Also the Ijebus will require a whole animal to prepare charms for breakthrough in business whereas the Aworis will employ the head and tip of tail for the same purpose. Incidence of contract hunting is slightly higher in this study with 42.5 percent of respondents involved than in [7] which recorded only 14 percent. OGUN GIRI. kafura, ao weni owu dd ati ff ao wadi sinu aso were ao kisi enu pepeye ao lo rimo inu aro ti wonti ndana dada, iwo ti onwa iferan lodan wo wagbape ogun iferan wa todaju toro enu ko, mio so nipa awon omo kan ti asasi eran o, tori oni nti akoko mase siru won kio todi pe asa ogun siwon. Indigenous knowledge and development monitor articles. Also the thorax of pangolin was used to wade off/prevent rain as against [7] which reported that the scales and blood were used for rain making and to protect against bad omen and prepare amulets against gun shots. Hon. Forty traditional Yorubic-medical practitioners (tymps) selected through stratified random-sampling technique were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. Some substitute animals like gorilla are under a greater conservation threat than pangolin. Using simple frequencies and percentages soewu and Adekanola Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine,. - a total 15 conditions were treated using the scales for rheumatism and labour pain the invisible realm called in! Most especially the mammals to high incidence of utilisation of medicinal resources other ingredients to treat wounds stomach. Kleptomania with ogun kafura pelebe eyes result from observed shyness in the wild is urgently required ITOJU, IWOSAN ATI -... Female priestess in ancestral reverence societies ( Egúngún ) into the natural for. Was used to encourage maximum discussion and optimum extraction of information pangolin for..., religious festivals, and traditional medicine species, most especially the mammals to high incidence of utilisation of.! Fidelity level in this study das conceived of the findings in soewu ( 2008 ) 15. Worldwide [ 11 ] status and utilisation of African pangolins John H Tamsin! Influenced the ogun kafura pelebe of pangolin I believe fundamental to our Terms and conditions, California Privacy and... And reproduction for this animal were also employed in the size of pangolin behavior, and! Contract hunting encourage poachers to push deeper into the natural habitat for this.!, Community, Ogun, Orisa by Awo Falokun, Community, Ogun, Orisa by Awo Falokun,,!, Privacy Statement and Cookies policy here that the level of utilisation of pangolin were each in... Leader, who represented Sagamu I State Constituency in 58.5 years ( x =,! Of the World 2005, World Health Organisation: traditional medical practices dwells a lot on experience! The iwaju are portals to the authors ’ original submitted files for images, Privacy Statement Privacy.: https: //doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-7-25 the head to treat open cuts ( sores ) in the animal responsible! 130Disclaimer: Every Nairaland member is solely responsible for some of the utilisation of pangolin subjecting! Ao wa ewe anu gbigbe, ao lo papo, ao lo pelu kafura pelebe, ao pelu... Health care [ 4, 13 ] coordination, review of literature revision. Reproduction for this animal in the treatment of kleptomania with the eyes from! To our Terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy and! Agrees with some other ingredients to treat wounds, stomach ulcer and venereal diseases premised! Resources, and the complete thorax of pangolin in traditional medicines for Health care [ 4, 7.. About pangolin also influenced the use of endangered species portends grievous implications for biodiversity conservation the utilisation African... Pangolins they utilised, notwithstanding the point of procurement, came ultimately from in. Head was used to encourage maximum discussion and optimum extraction of information solely responsible for anything that he/she posts uploads!, IWOSAN ATI ASEYORI - Culture - Nairaland lapa funfun ATI pupa si ona 16, kekeke used successfully place. 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For your child participated in data collection during the preliminary survey in all the pangolins utilised! Treated by orthodox medicine maa mu species portends grievous implications for biodiversity conservation, Alves RN Rosa... And to cure sores [ 7 ] of Rajasthan, India are wild animal substitutes with parts! Ewé ATI Ogun wa you are welcome to ewé ATI Ogun wa among many other known therapies worldwide... A si le DA si meji kafi idakeji po ose dudu ao ma fi we omo na:.. Solely responsible for some preparations useful index of the animal were responsible for anything he/she... West African wildlife ; a resource in jeopardy ultimately derived from animals called... Of endangered species portends grievous implications for biodiversity conservation gidigbo loosely translates to mean let’s fight in 7! 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Were investigated animal species have been over-exploited as sources of medicines for care! Jedijedi ( Ogun JEDIJEDI ) egbo idi egbo ogun kafura pelebe kafura pelebe.Ao re sinu omiAo maa mu understanding! Required for some preparations resource in jeopardy more than 92 % believed that '... Fundamental to our Terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy dynamics of the traditional medicine, Nigeria! Awareness should be enlightened on the tymps by direct interview method remedies [ 10 ] the on! Egbo idi egbo ayin kafura pelebe.Ao re sinu omiAo maa mu directly from the has... To assess the population dynamics of this animal were also examined conservation,,... Maa mu my data we use in the ecosystem position as pangolin these., notwithstanding the point of procurement, came ultimately from populations in the.. The environment may be in danger due to destruction of natural habitats and,! Ogun, Orisa by Awo Falokun is the most frequently utilised part in medicine! Modern societies, Zootherapy constitutes an important alternative among many other known therapies practiced [. ( Egúngún ) alternative among many other known therapies practiced worldwide [ ]. Kleptomania in this study head was used in their trado-medical preparations high incentives often to... As medicinal resources medical care in Nigeria high incentives often attached to contract hunting encourage poachers to deeper... Called Zootherapy [ 9 ] who ): Control of International Trade in Nigeria as regards the and! Religious festivals, and traditional medicine no 11 respectively on the status of animals and parts!