[46], On 31 August 1492 the new Pope, Alexander VI, held a consistory in which he named six cardinal legates, one of whom was Giuliano della Rovere, who was appointed Legate in Avignon. Pastor, VI, pp. The principal complaints of the barons were the heavy taxation imposed by Ferdinand to finance his war against the Saracens, who had occupied Bari in 1480; and the vigorous efforts of Ferrante to centralize the administrative apparatus of the kingdom, moving it away from a feudal to a bureaucratic system. On the 20th, according to Paris de Grassis, he received Holy Communion from the hands of Cardinal Raffaele Riario, the Camerlengo. [84], Urbino's magnificent court palace was infiltrated by French soldiers in the pay of the Duke of Gonzaga; the Montefeltro Conspiracy against his loyal cousins earned the occupying armies the Pope's undying hatred. A veteran of the Sacred College, della Rovere had won influence for the election of Pope Pius III with the help of Florentine Ambassador to Naples, Lorenzo de' Medici. [111] He received Holy Communion and was granted the plenary indulgence on the morning of 19 February, according to the Venetian Ambassador. Mansi, XXXII, pp. Julius II (1443-1513), who was pope from 1503 to 1513, was a noted Renaissance patron of the arts. "[108] Nonetheless, he continued his restless activities, including Masses, visits to churches, and audiences. As part of the Renaissance program of reestablishing the glory of antiquity for the Christian capital, Rome, Julius II took considerable effort to present himself as a sort of emperor-pope, capable of leading a Latin-Christian empire. Ferrante, therefore, decided to use Della Rovere as the center of an anti-Sforza party at the papal court, a prospect made easier since Ferrante had prudently repaired his relations with Cardinal Giuliano after the War of the Barons. Some twenty years later, when Henry was attempting to wed Anne Boleyn (since his son by Catherine of Aragon survived only a few days, and two of her sons were stillborn, and therefore he had no male heir), he sought to have his marriage annulled, claiming that the dispensation of Pope Julius should never have been issued. Julius II was succeeded by Pope Leo X. With some courage Julius marched his army to Bologna and then against the French to Mirandola. Genoa and Venice supported the Papacy, while Florence and Milan opted for Naples. [15] Giuliano was educated by his uncle, Fr. On 23 April 1494, the Cardinal took ship, having placed his fortress at Ostia in the hands of his brother Giovanni della Rovere, and traveled to Genoa and then to Avignon. Pope Julius II, who wanted to be laid at the newly constructed St. Peter's Basilica, had commissioned an imposing tomb from Michelangelo. [1] One of the most powerful and influential popes, Julius II was a central figure of the High Renaissance and left a significant cultural and political legacy. Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M., among the Franciscans, who took him under his special charge. Julius II, who had sworn to summon a general council, maintained that it was delayed by foreign occupation of Italy, and after a false council 'Conciliabulum Pisanum' was formed, he convoked the Fifth Lateran Council in 1512. He was the nephew of Pope Sixtus IV. Julius wanted to remind everyone of his legislation on papal conclaves, in particular against simony, and to fix his regulations firmly in canon law so that they could not be dispensed or ignored. He still continued to hear masses, visits churches, and address audiences, but after becoming bed-ridden during Christmas, he made arrangements for his funeral. Eugène Müntz, "Giuliano da San Gallo et Les monuments antiques du midi de la France au XV, Mark J Zucker, Raphael and the Beard of Pope Julius II, pp.525-527, Carlotta, the daughter of the King of Naples, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Above all, the notion of Julius II for barbarian hostilty seems to have been a genuine inspiration...the Pope's desired derived...from the Pope's harbouring an ancient grudge against them, or because over the years his suspicion grew into hate, or because he desired 'the glory of being the man who liberated Italy from the barbarians', https://archive.org/details/hierarchiacathol02eubeuoft, History of the Great Reformation of the Sixteenth Century in Germany, "Papal Politics and Raphael's Stanza Della Segnatura as Papal Golden Age", Sermon Cardinal Sodano on the pontificate of Pope Julius II, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Julius_II&oldid=999351888, Roman Catholic prince-bishops in the Holy Roman Empire, Major Penitentiaries of the Apostolic Penitentiary, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with incomplete citations from May 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2020, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from March 2012, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles containing unlinked shortened footnotes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Rafaello della Rovere and Theodora Manerola, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 19:12. The conclave capitulation preceding his election included several terms, such as the opening of an ecumenical council and the organization of a crusade against the Ottoman Turks. Nationality: Italian Why Famous: Nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope", was Pope from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513. However, … [41] On 28 June the Pope sent back to Naples the token gift of a palfrey which symbolized the King of Naples' submission and demanded the full feudal submission of the Kingdom of Naples to the Roman Church according to long-standing tradition. [63] Meanwhile, the French army crossed the Alps and captured Alessandria in Piedmont. He appointed Giuliano as the first archbishop. Although Raphael's original was lost, it was thought to relate closely to the personal iconography of Stanza della Segnatura, commissioned by Pope Julius himself. All the tombs of the Borgias must be opened and their bodies sent back to where they belong – to Spain. He then undertook the task of expelling the Venetians, who had taken over various places in the ecclesiastical territory of Romagna, and formed an alliance between France and the Holy Roman Empire. His papal name was not in honor of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar, and he acted more like a warrior who focused on re-establishing the Pontifical States and delivering Italy from its subjection to France. Make a donation Close. His rivals included Cardinal Ardicio della Porta and Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, both patronized by the Milanese. Julius II is one of Father Kunst’s favorite popes alongside Saint John Paul II and Pope John Paul I. On the Vigil of Pentecost in May 1512, Pope Julius, aware that he was seriously ill and that his health was failing, despite comments on the part of some cardinals about how well he looked, remarked to Paris de Grassis, "They are flattering me; I know better; my strength diminishes from day to day and I cannot live much longer. His action against the Cardinal was done not only without the consent of the cardinals in consistory, but in fact over their vigorous objections. "per vendicarsi et diceva ... anco fuora scazato el re Ludovico Franza d'Italia. He returned on 8 April 1488, and again took up his residence in the Palazzo Colonna next to the Basilica of the XII Apostles. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. [65], Another break in relations between Pope Alexander and Cardinal Giuliano came at the end of 1501 or the beginning of 1502 when Giuliano was transferred from the Bishopric of Bologna to the diocese of Vercelli. A member of the Franciscan order, his career was significantly boosted when his uncle was elected as Pope Sixtus IV (1471). 762, 768–772. Due to its scope, it should contain only subcategories. Pastor, V, p. 326. This was an age of Renaissance conspiracy. Category:Popes by nationality. 364-365; 406-412. The pope's hirsute chin may have raised severe, even vulgar criticism, as at one Bologna banquet held in 1510 at which papal legate Marco Cornaro was present. Pastor, VI, p. 431. In Rome, the Orsini allied themselves with Ferrante's son Alfonso, and therefore the Colonna supported the Pope in the street fighting that ensued. [90] The League fought against the Republic of Venice. This was directed against King Louis XII.[106]. All paintings made of the Borgias or for them must be covered over with black crepe. He seemed less enthused by theology; rather, Paul Strathern argues, his imagined heroes were military leaders such as Frederic Colonna. [87] Julius left a spy at the Urbino Palace, possibly Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere, Cardinal of San Pietro, to watch the Mantua stables in total secret; the secular progress of the Papal Curia was growing in authority and significance. [125] This sexual reputation survived Julius, and the accusation continued to be made without reservation by Protestant opponents in their polemics against "papism" and Catholic decadence. [29] Shortly thereafter the sum of 300,000 ecus of gold was received from the French in a subsidy of the war. [12] In November 1511, a council met at Pisa, called by rebel cardinals with support from the French king and the Empire; they demanded the deposition of Charles II at Pisa. 501-502, 506-507. [54], Back in Lyon in 1496, Charles VIII and Giuliano della Rovere were planning another war. Giuliano Della Rovere thenceforth took the name of his fourth-century predecessor, Julius I, and was pope for nine years, from 1503 to 1513. [104] It held its first working session on 10 May. Pope Leo X juxtaposed the character of his predecessor, the warrior pope, Julius II. Having established the ideal position of pope and prince, it remains to be seen which Julius II is more rightly called. [78][79] The combination was, however, at first little more than nominal, and was not immediately effective in compelling the Venetians to deliver up more than a few unimportant places in the Romagna. He resented the increasing influence of Ferdinand of Aragon in Italy under Alexander VI and opposed his nepotism, and to escape Alexander's wrath, he fled to France to the court of Charles VIII in 1494. [125] Such accusations were made to discredit him, but perhaps in so doing his accusers were exploiting a generally "perceived weakness". When Julius is asked why he makes a point of declaring his nationality, he responds, “I consider it the very height of piety to ennoble my nation” (p.56). He held several powerful offices at once; apart from the archbishopric of Avignon, he held at least eight bishoprics, including Lausanne and Coutances. [64], Pope Alexander then turned his attention, stimulated by the Venetians, to the threat of the Osmanli Turks. [89] In 1508, Julius was fortuitously able to form the League of Cambrai with Louis XII, King of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (proclaimed without coronation as Emperor by Pope Julius II at Trent in 1508) and Ferdinand II, King of Aragon. He was educated among the Franciscans by his uncle, who took him under his special charge and later sent him to a convent in La Pérouse with the purpose of obtaining knowledge of the sciences. Antonello de Sanseverino was the brother-in-law of Cardinal della Rovere's brother Giovanni, who was a noble of Naples because of his fief of Sora. The idea was not his, but originally that of Nicholas V, who had commissioned designs from Bernardo Rossellino. [36], By 1484 Giuliano was living in the new palazzo which he had constructed next to the Basilica of the Twelve Apostles, which he had also restored. [88], In addition to an active military policy, the new pope personally led troops into battle on at least two occasions, the first to expel Giovanni Bentivoglio from Bologna (17 August 1506 – 23 March 1507), which was achieved successfully with the assistance of the Duchy of Urbino. Following the death of Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, he was promoted to suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia in 1483. The kidnapping party returned to Rome on 12 July, without having accomplished its mission. He was named Papal Legate to France in 1480 and subsequently went there. In spite of a violent temper della Rovere succeeded by dexterous diplomacy in winning the support of Cesare Borgia, whom he won over by his promise of money and continued papal backing for Borgia policies in the Romagna. [35] On 28 December 1484, Giuliano participated in the investiture of his brother Giovanni as Captain-General of the Papal Armies by Pope Innocent VIII. Louis XII of France controlled the Duchy of Milan, previously held by the Sforzas, and French influence had replaced that of the Medici in the Republic of Florence. In the competition for a building plan, the design of Rossellino was immediately rejected as being out of date. Strozzi transcript of Diaria et ceremoniale pape Julii II, 1504-1513, 17th or 18th century. This portrait of the careworn Pope Julius II (1443–1513) is usually dated to the one-and-a-half-year period during which he wore a beard. "Giuliano, whom the popular voice seemed to indicate as the only possible pope, was as unscrupulous as any of his colleagues in the means which he employed. This re-asserted a strong relation between Florence and Rome, a lasting legacy of Julius II. He had four siblings: Bartolomeo, later Bishop of Ferrara; Leonardo; Giovanni, later Prefect of the City of Rome and Prince of Sorea and Senigallia; and Lucina, mother of Cardinal Sisto Gara della Rovere. [c][122] Felice della Rovere survived into adulthood. [2], Julius II became Pope in the context of the Italian Wars, a period in which the major powers of Europe fought for primacy in the Italian peninsula. He was nevertheless the first pope since antiquity to grow facial hair, a practice otherwise forbidden by canon law since the 13th century. He died of a fever in the night of 20–21 February 1513. [80], The Bull entitled Ea quae pro bono pacis, issued on 24 January 1506, confirmed papal approval of the mare clausum policy being pursued by Spain and Portugal amid their explorations, and approved the changes of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas to previous papal bulls. Pope Julius II's health gradually declined following his successful campaign against the French, and he had remarked about his failing health to Paris de Grassis in May 1512. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pope_Julius_II.jpg. Pope Julius II was known for sponsoring some of the greatest artwork of the Italian Renaissance, including the … [121] There was a sense that war caused him serious illness, exhaustion, and fatigue, that most popes could not have withstood. Today both men lie in St. Peter's Basilica on the floor in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. He was well aware that the Church was corrupt and sought to dramatically reform it. 486; 108. Even then, he could be dispensed. Yet Machiavelli and his methods would not outlast Julius' Papacy. [22][23][24], In 1474, Giuliano led an army to Todi, Spoleto, and Città di Castello as papal legate. Paul Maria Baumgarten, in: W.R.Albury, Castiglione's Francescopaedia: Pope Julius II and Francesco Maria Della Rovere in The Book of the Courtier, Encyclopædia Britannica (2003) pp.648-649. Marino Sanuto, I, p. 555. Gregorovius, VII.2, pp. Please Like other favourites! Ferdinand of Spain now recognized Naples as a papal fief, invested in 1511, and therefore Julius II now regarded France as the main foreign power in the Italian peninsula hostile to Papal interests. Gregorovius, VIII.1, pp. Yet, despite the imperial rhetoric, the campaigns were highly localized. [49], Della Rovere at once determined to take refuge from Borgia's wrath at Ostia. With the French out of Italy and Spain recognizing Naples as a papal fief, a Congress was held in Mantua by Julius II to declare the liberation of the peninsula. Until the 20th century, a Cardinal did not have to be in major Holy Orders (Bishop, Priest, Deacon—which involved the vow of celibacy), unless he hoped to vote in a papal conclave. Julius II, Motu proprio.jpg 2,915 × 1,926; 4 MB Lapide a Giulio II a Finale Emilia.jpg 1,429 × 956; 307 KB Latin inscription of Pope Julius II - Sant'Apollinare in Classe - … He issued a strict bull against simony at papal elections; condemned the heresy of Piero de Lucca; instituted Capella Julia, a school for ecclesiastical chant; and convoked the Fifth Lateran Council to eradicate abuses from the church. 46, no. Pastor, VI, p. 121, note §. Ludwig von Pastor wrote, "Paris de Grassis, his Master of Ceremonies, who has handed on to us so many characteristic features of his master's life, says that he hardly ever jested. Pope Julius II was the 216th leader of the Catholic Church and the second among those great men to guide by the papal name of “Julius.” This article seeks to distinguish him from his many papal forebears and successors by focusing on specifics and details of his life and papacy. [51] This Pope Alexander refused to do, claiming that Cardinal della Rovere would occupy it and become master of Rome. "[71] Indeed, his election on 1 November 1503 took only a few hours, and the only two votes he did not receive were his own and the one of Georges d'Amboise, his most vigorous opponent and the favourite of the French monarchy. Pope Julius II is remembered more for his patronage of the arts — including commissioning Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel — than for his theological impact on the Catholic church. The last remnants of the French invasion were gone by November 1496. He is very historically significant in papal history and this, therefore, makes it one of his favorite items in the entire Collection. [116] He did much to improve and beautify the city. 24 January 1502: Eubel, II, p. 108. As of 2018 Pope Julius is 69 years (age at death) years old. In May 1512 a general or ecumenical council, the Fifth Council of the Lateran, was held in Rome. In the spring of 1509, the Republic of Venice was placed under an interdict by Julius,[92] In May 1509 Julius sent troops to fight against the Venetians who had occupied parts of the Romagna, winning back the Papal States in a decisive battle near Cremona. Dumesnil, p. 11. [61] Louis offered Cesare another of his relatives, the "beautiful and rich" Charlotte d'Albret,[62] whom Cesare married at Blois on 13 May 1499. Venice was the first to feel the strong hand of Julius II. The retraction of the dispensation was refused by Pope Clement VII. Both houses desired an end to the occupation of Italian lands by the armies of France. In 1508, he commissioned the Raphael Rooms and Michelangelo's paintings in the Sistine Chapel. [56] By June, however, the Pope was in negotiations with the Cardinal for reconciliation and return to Rome. Brosch, p. 88. His manner was gruff and coarse, just as his peasant-like sense of humour. The rescue of the city on 1 September 1512 saved Rome from another invasion, ousting Soderini, and returning the dynastic rule of the Medici. For the accomplishment of this task no pope was ever better suited than Julius, whom nature and circumstances had hewn out for a soldier. This was, without doubt, the most time consuming of all Michelangelo’s works and took him almost his entire life. A warrior pope, he failed to bring Italy under papal control. [39], In 1485 Pope Innocent and Cardinal della Rovere (as the Pope's new principal advisor) decided to involve themselves in the political affairs of the Kingdom of Naples, in what was called the Conspiracy of the Barons. It was Cardinal della Rovere, the Papal Legate, who placed the hat on Amboise's head.[60]. The same year he organized the renowned Swiss Guards for his personal protection and commanded a successful campaign in Romagna against local lords. Pastor VI, p. 440. Julius II is usually depicted with a beard, after his appearance in the celebrated portrait by Raphael, the artist whom he first met in 1509. Pastor, V, p. 491. Where promises and persuasions were unavailing, he did not hesitate to have recourse to bribery. Pope Julius was reported to be seriously ill in a dispatch received in Venice on 10 February 1513. Following the death of Innocent VIII, he was his logical successor and had support from both King Charles VIII of France and Charles' enemy King Ferrante of Naples. Pope Julius III (Latin: Iulius III; 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 7 … He often treated subordinates and people who worked for him very badly. 336-340; 346-348. Döllinger, p. 427. Julius had seemingly restored fortuna or control by exercising his manly vertu, just as Machiavelli wrote. After the ceremonies of the election of Pope Innocent were completed, the cardinals were dismissed to their own homes, but Cardinal della Rovere accompanied the new Pope to the Vatican Palace and was the only one to remain with him. "...he was so ill that he did not expect to be able to stay alive very long." On 18 April 1506 Pope Julius II laid the foundation stone of the new St. Peter's Basilica for the successful architect, Donato Bramante. [27], Giuliano was again named Papal Legate to France on 28 April 1480, and left Rome on 9 June. Pope Julius II was born as Giuliano della Rovere Albisola on December 5, 1443, in the Albisola near Savona in the Republic of Genoa to Raffaelo della Rovere and Theodora Manerola. Alexander's plan of securing a royal throne for his son fell through, and he was very angry. He reached Paris in September, and finally, on 20 December 1480, Louis gave orders that Balue be handed over to the Archpriest of Loudun, who had been commissioned by the Legate to receive him in the name of the Pope. The two dynasties became uneasy allies in the context of papal politics. He is also remembered as a patron of the arts who hired Michelangelo to repaint the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel, commissioned four exquisitely painted rooms from Raphael, and commissioned Bramante for the construction of a new basilica in place of old St. Peter's. The prestige of the della Rovere family was seriously damaged, and in an attempt to exculpate himself Pope Innocent began to withdraw his support for them. He also became known as "the warrior pope" and il papa terribile. Julius II brought the Catholic Ferdinand II of Aragon into the alliance, declaring Naples a papal fief and promising a formal investiture. In June Federico of Altamura was back in Rome and held conversations with Della Rovere, assuring him of Neapolitan protection. During the late 1490s, he became more closely acquainted with Cardinal de’ Medici and his cousin Giulio de’ Medici, both of whom would later become Pope, (i.e. His remains lay alongside his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV, but were later desecrated during the Sack of Rome in 1527. [12] During the War of the Holy League, alliances kept changing: in 1510 Venice and France switched places, and by 1513, Venice had joined France. Della Rovere, who was trying to repair his relations with the House of Borgia, was also involved in another clause of the treaty, the marriage between Cesare Borgia and Carlotta, the daughter of the King of Naples, who had been brought up at the French Court. Later desecrated during the Sack of Rome in 1527 Julius challenged Gregorian conventional wisdom in dangerous times:! 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